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a fungal disease which causes respiratory problems in humans and other mammals. It is contracted by inhaling the spores of the Histoplsma capsulatum, which is a natural fungus found in soil. Like most fungi, the Histoplsma spores, need warm and humid conditions to grow. Bird droppings are a primary source for the cultivation of this fungus, however, spores have also been known to grow on bat droppings, especially those found in caves and buildings located in warm and humid climates. Inhalation of these spores occurs when the dry fecal matter is disturbed and becomes air-borne. The seriousness of the infection depends on the amount of spores inhaled and the overall health of the victim. In few cases, victims became seriously ill or died from complications. It is therefore recommended that droppings be removed when possible after exclusion, to minimize the potential of contracting this disease.




is a preventable viral disease that causes acute encephalitis (inflammation of the brain). The virus exists in the saliva of mammals and is transmitted from animal to animal or from animal to human by biting and/or scratching. The virus can also be spread by licking, when infected saliva makes contact with open cuts or wounds, and with the mouth, eyes, and nose. If left untreated in humans and animals, rabies is fatal. Therefore, to survive rabies exposure it is necessary to complete a rabies treatment under the supervision of a medical professional.

Remember: The best way to prevent the spread of rabies is the vaccination of house pets and people.


Thanks to pet owners across the United States complying with animal vaccination requirements, immunization has helped control the spread of rabies and has kept the general human and pet population relatively rabies-free. And, because of the rabies vaccine, as long as your pets are up-to-date on their shots, even if they come across a rabid animal in the backyard or in a park, they have an excellent chance of survival with the help of a veterinarian's care. To protect humans, there is a rabies vaccine for humans and an immune globulin (a protein that comes from the blood of a person or animal that has developed a resistance to rabies); both work to protect humans from the rabies virus. However, timing, as well as medication, is important to rabies prevention. For example, if you are a person who is planning to work in or travel to an environment where rabies is a risk, you should get vaccinated before you enter that environment; that's pre- exposure vaccination. And all those who have been exposed to rabies, whether or not they have had pre-exposure vaccination, absolutely must have postexposure treatment as soon as possible.

Remember: Pre-exposure vaccination is for people who, because of their jobs or travel destinations, are in danger of being exposed to the rabies virus.

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